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fuss:freebsd [2017/02/11 19:57]
office [i2p on FreeBSD 10]
fuss:freebsd [2017/02/22 18:30] (current)
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 +====== Launching a Process on Boot ======
 +
 +On Unix systems, when a user logs on, their default shell which is set when the account is first created, is spawned for them automatically. We use that to spawn a program instead of a shell by creating a user, in this case named ''​wiz''​ which has its default shell set to some program like ''/​usr/​bin/​top''​.
 +
 +A new user should be added using the ''​adduser''​ utility which makes the appropriate changes. In order to check whether the user has been added correctly the ''/​etc/​passwd''​ file should contain an entry like the following for our user ''​wiz'':​
 +
 +<code sh>
 +wiz:​*:​1000:​1000:​Wizardry and Steamworks:/​home/​wiz:/​usr/​bin/​top
 +</​code>​
 +
 +We duplicate the Pc console in ''/​etc/​gettytab''​ and give it another name, while making sure that it has some new unique identifiers like ''​Pa''​ instead of ''​Pc''​ as well as specifying our username to automatically log on by using the ''​al''​ (automatic login) option. ​
 +
 +<code sh>
 +P|Pc|Pc console:\
 +        :​ht:​np:​sp#​9600:​
 + 
 +P|Pa|Pa console:\
 +        :​ht:​np:​sp#​9600:​al=wiz
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Then, we add the terminal to the ''/​etc/​ttys''​ file which will launch the ''​Po''​ console on the first virtual terminal, then log-in our user named ''​wiz''​ that would launch ''​wiz'''​s shell which is ''/​usr/​bin/​top'':​
 +
 +<code sh>
 +ttyv0   "/​usr/​libexec/​getty Po" ​        ​xterm ​  ​on ​ secure
 +# Virtual terminals
 +ttyv1   "/​usr/​libexec/​getty Pc" ​        ​xterm ​  ​on ​ secure
 +</​code>​
 +
 +====== Passing Arguments to Autoconf ======
 +
 +There are instances where certain options from ports are not configurable using the port system. For example, there is a bug in FreeBSD 10.1 that prevents ''​libidn''​ to be installed in case you also have the ''​mono''​ compiler install. The issue stems from the fact that when ''​libidn''​ runs, it will also pick-up the ''​mono''​ install and attempt to install the chsarp bindings. The solution in that case is to go to ''/​usr/​ports/​dns/​libidn''​ and edit the ''​Makefile''​ and add the following option:
 +<code bash>
 +CONFIGURE_ARGS= --disable-csharp
 +</​code>​
 +
 +where all the parameters passed to the ''​CONFIGURE_ARGS''​ variable will be passed on to the autoconf ''​configure''​ script. Note that ''​CONFIGURE_ARGS''​ can also be passed as a parameter to ''​make''​ using the ''​variable=value''​ format.
 +
 +====== Updating Ports ======
 +
 +A good idea is to keep ports updated and that can be achieved using the ''​portsnap''​ command. First, in order to update your ports, issue:
 +<code bash>
 +portsnap fetch extract
 +</​code>​
 +and then any time you wish to update the ports, issue:
 +<code bash>
 +portsnap fetch update
 +</​code>​
 +
 +====== Updating Packages ======
 +
 +In order to update packages, you can use ''​portmaster''​ commonly found in ''/​usr/​ports/​ports-mgmt/​portmaster''​. You can check what new packages are available by issuing:
 +<code bash>
 +portmaster -L --index-only| egrep '​(ew|ort) version|total install'​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +and, in order to update a package - say ''​bash'',​ issue:
 +<code bash>
 +portmaster bash
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Alternatively,​ to update the whole distribution,​ you can issue:
 +<code bash>
 +portmaster -a
 +</​code>​
 +
 +====== Setting Time-Zome ======
 +
 +Some packages depend heavily on a time-zone being set. FreeBSD by default assumes UTC, in which case, it considers that no timezone setting is necessary. What happens is that if there is no ''/​etc/​localtime''​ installed, then some programs such as the ''​mono''​ c-sharp compiler will bomb out claiming that they were unable to determine the time-zone.
 +
 +In order to install a time-zone, copy a file (don't copy a directory) from ''/​usr/​share/​zoneinfo/''​ to ''/​etc/​localtime''​. For example, to set to ''​UTC''​ time, issue:
 +<code bash>
 +cp /​usr/​share/​zoneinfo/​UTC /​etc/​localtime
 +</​code>​
 +
 +====== Reinstalling Ports ======
 +
 +In order to rebuild a port and the ports it depends on, issue:
 +<code bash>
 +portupgrade -Rf <​portglob>​
 +</​code>​
 +or
 +<code bash>
 +portmaster -f <​portglob>​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +In order to rebuild a port and the ports that depend on it, issue:
 +<code bash>
 +portupgrade -rf <​portglob>​
 +</​code>​
 +or
 +<code bash>
 +portmaster -rf <​portglob>​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +where ''<​portglob>''​ is a port path, ie: ''​multimedia/​mplayer''​
 +
 +====== Add User to Wheel Group ======
 +
 +In order for an user to be able to elevate its privileges, the user needs to be part of the ''​wheel''​ group. Issue the command:
 +<code bash>
 +pw user mod USER -G wheel
 +</​code>​
 +
 +as root in order to add ''​USER''​ to the ''​wheel''​ group.
 +
 +====== Initialize GeoIP Databases ======
 +
 +First, install the ''​GeoIP''​ port:
 +<code bash>
 +cd /​usr/​ports/​net/​GeoIP
 +make config-recursive
 +make install clean
 +</​code>​
 +
 +then change directory to ''/​usr/​local/​share/​GeoIP/'':​
 +<code bash>
 +cd /​usr/​local/​share/​GeoIP
 +</​code>​
 +
 +and download the [[http://​dev.maxmind.com/​geoip/​legacy/​geolite/​|databases from maxmind.com]]:​
 +<code bash>
 +curl -O http://​geolite.maxmind.com/​download/​geoip/​database/​GeoLiteCountry/​GeoIP.dat.gz
 +curl -O http://​geolite.maxmind.com/​download/​geoip/​database/​GeoLiteCity.dat.gz
 +curl -O http://​download.maxmind.com/​download/​geoip/​database/​asnum/​GeoIPASNum.dat.gz
 +</​code>​
 +
 +and extract them:
 +<code bash>
 +gunzip GeoIP.dat.gz
 +gunzip GeoIPASNum.dat.gz
 +gunzip GeoLiteCity.dat.gz
 +</​code>​
 +
 +which should cover the installation of the databases.
 +
 +In order to check that they are working correctly, issue, for instance:
 +<​code>​
 +/​usr/​local/​bin/​geoiplookup -f /​usr/​local/​share/​GeoIP/​GeoLiteCity.dat 8.8.8.8
 +</​code>​
 +
 +which should yield:
 +<​code>​
 +GeoIP City Edition, Rev 1: US, CA, California, Mountain View, 94040, 37.386002, -122.083801,​ 807, 650
 +</​code>​
 +
 +====== Ports Cheat-Sheet ======
 +
 +^ Command ^ Purpose ^
 +| ''​make rmconfig''​ | Removes the configuration of the current port. |
 +| ''​make rmconfig-recursive''​ | Removes the configuration of the current port and all ports depending on the current port. |
 +| ''​make config''​ | Configures the current port. |
 +| ''​make config-recursive''​ | Configures the current port and all ports depending on the current port. |
 +| ''​make depends''​ | Compiles all the ports that the current port depends on. |
 +| ''​make showconfig''​ | Show the build options for the current port. |
 +| ''​make showconfig-recursive''​ | Show the build options for the current port and all ports built by the current port. |
 +
 +====== Automatically Repair Filesystem on Boot ======
 +
 +The option:
 +<​code>​
 +fsck_y_enable="​YES"​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +can be added to ''/​etc/​rc.conf''​ which will make FreeBSD answer yes to all questions when performing the filesystem check (it is the equivalent of ''​fsck -y''​).
 +
 +Additionally,​ by specifying:
 +<​code>​
 +background_fsck="​NO"​
 +</​code>​
 +in ''/​etc/​rc.conf'',​ the file system check will not run concurrently to the boot process and the file system check will be performed first and then the machine will boot.
 +
 +====== Adding and Removing Users from Groups ======
 +
 +In order to remove a user named ''​USER''​ from a group named ''​GROUP'',​ issue:
 +<code bash>
 +pw mod group GROUP -d USER
 +</​code>​
 +
 +In order to add a user named ''​USER''​ to a group named ''​GROUP'',​ issue:
 +<code bash>
 +pw mod user USER -G GROUP
 +</​code>​
 +
 +====== Remove ACL Entries ======
 +
 +This can be achieved using the command:
 +<code bash>
 +setfacl -bn PATH
 +</​code>​
 +
 +where ''​PATH''​ is the path to a file or folder.
 +
 +====== i2p on FreeBSD 10 ======
 +
 +''​i2p''​ from ''​security/​i2p''​ seems to be very broken on FreeBSD 10 due to a shell script that launches a Java service wrapper to start ''​i2p''​. To start ''​i2p'',​ you would edit ''/​etc/​rc.conf''​ and add the lines:
 +
 +<​code>​
 +i2p_enable="​YES"​
 +i2p_user="​i2p"​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +where ''​i2p''​ must be an user that you have previously configured.
 +
 +After that, you would issue:
 +<code bash>
 +/​usr/​local/​etc/​rc.d/​i2p install
 +</​code>​
 +
 +which will install the service files to the home directory of the ''​i2p''​ from ''/​etc/​rc.conf''​.
 +
 +Then, if you attempt to start the service:
 +<code bash>
 +/​usr/​local/​etc/​rc.d/​i2p start
 +</​code>​
 +
 +and monitor ''​wrapper.log''​ (usually found under the ''​i2p''​ user's home directory in a hidden folder named ''​.i2p/''​),​ you will notice that it bombs out with various errors such as:
 +<​code>​
 +Launching a JVM...
 +javavm: warning: The use of '​javavm'​ as a synonym for '​java'​ is deprecated
 +JVM exited while loading the application.
 +Error: Could not find or load main class org.tanukisoftware.wrapper.WrapperSimpleApp
 +The value of wrapper.java.command does not appear to be a java binary.
 +The use of scripts is not supported. Trying to continue, but some features may not work correctly..
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Which is obviously a class-path problem. The officially suggested workaround is to install ''​sysutils/​javaservicewrapper''​ and then copy some files into the install path of ''​i2p'':​
 +<code bash>
 +cd $HOME/i2p
 +cp /​usr/​local/​bin/​javaservicewrapper i2psvc
 +cp /​usr/​local/​lib/​javaservicewrapper/​lib/​wrapper.jar lib/
 +cp /​usr/​local/​lib/​javaservicewrapper/​lib/​libwrapper.so lib/
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Unfortunately,​ that does not work either. The deep-magic lies in the ''​wrapper.config''​ file in the ''​i2p''​ install path (the path mentioned where you issued ''/​usr/​local/​etc/​rc.d/​i2p install''​).
 +
 +You need to edit ''​wrapper.config''​ and then find all occurrences of:
 +<​code>​
 +$INSTALL_PATH
 +</​code>​
 +
 +and replace that variable with the hard-coded path to where you installed i2p. Apparently the install script does not set the environment variable properly such that you will have to hard-code it this way in order for i2p to start.
 +
 +====== Set Default ACLs for Newly Created Files ======
 +
 +In order to have the ACLs applied to new files and folders created under a directory, default ACLs can be used.
 +
 +The first step is to set the default ACL for the directory:
 +<code bash>
 +setfacl -dm u::​rwx,​m::​rwx,​g::​rx,​o::​rx DIRECTORY
 +</​code>​
 +
 +where:
 +  * ''​DIRECTORY''​ is the directory to set the default ACL for.
 +
 +This step is necessary before setting default ACLs that grant other users permissions,​ otherwise setting default user ACLs directly would result in:
 +<​code>​
 +setfacl: DIRECTORY: acl_calc_mask() failed: Invalid argument
 +setfacl: DIRECTORY: failed to set ACL mask
 +</​code>​
 +
 +The final step is to set the default ACLs for the users you want:
 +<code bash>
 +setfacl -dm u:​USER:​rwx,​g:​GROUP:​rwx DIRECTORY
 +</​code>​
 +where:
 +  * ''​USER''​ is an user name,
 +  * ''​GROUP''​ is a group name,
 +  * ''​DIRECTORY''​ is the directory to set the ACLs for.
 +
 +To set these permissions recursively (note that only directories may have default ACLs), you would have to use ''​find'':​
 +<code bash>
 +find . -type d -exec setfacl -dm u:​USER:​rwx,​g:​GROUP:​rwx '​{}'​ \;
 +</​code>​
 +
 +which will set default permissions for all directories and sub-directories starting from the current directory.
 +
 +
  

fuss/freebsd.txt ยท Last modified: 2017/02/22 18:30 (external edit)

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